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 The impact of CCTV on society  代寫

The impact of CCTV on society 代寫

 The impact of CCTV on society
  The impact of CCTV on society  代寫
Bhatt(2011) indicates that CCTV is short of Closed Circuit Television. CCTV Cameras collect images, which are transferred to a monitor-recording device of some sort, where they are available to be watched, reviewed and stored. In recent years, CCTV cameras are used extensively and fast becoming commonplace fixtures in many public areas including car parks, public transport even in workplaces. Using the CCTV cameras to monitoring, recording and collected evidence to decreasing crimes and some anti-social activities. But in the meantime, the impact of CCTV on society has become an issue open to debate. Some argue that CCTV cameras are effective and necessary tool for reducing crime rate, while most others think that the use of CCTV surveilance in public life is a violation of people’s privacy right. This essay will argue that CCTV cameras invade privacy and waste a lot of public money. 
It is evident that the use of CCTV has created a great deal of debate. Priority argument should be given to the invasion of privacy. Privacy can be defined as “that area of a man’s life which, in any given circumstances, a reasonable man with an understanding of the legitimate needs of the community would think it wrong to invade” (Aquilina, 2010. P130). The rights of privacy is very important for an individual, which including the right to know why the information is being collected, what is the purpose, how the information will be displayed, how long the information will be used and rights to access his information with his permission.(Privacy Commissioner, 2009) If violate these rights to get information, the individual may not only face a big problem but also feel insecure to live in the city, even lose trust on the government. For instance, about 41% of employees respondent think that their personal privacy does not protect well by the employers (AFL-CIO, 2002). Daniel(2006) takes the view that most employees said when knowing there is a camera aimed at them every day, they will feel nervous. Apart from that it can make many employees and others feel that they are being inappropriately distrusted and that always leaves a bad feeling, even lead to hostility and animosity. These examples clearly demonstrates that in recent years, the increase number of CCTV cameras lead to privacy invasion fears on society.
In the same way, the footage of CCTV cameras also have a great potential for misuse and abuse. According to Reeve in 2011, privately owned cameras makes up more than 90% of total CCTV cameras in UK. It follows that when people get the footage for their CCTV cameras they can post supposedly funny footage on such places as YouTube without permission from those who have been caught on the CCTV camera. (Norris & Wilson, 2006) In many cases it can be both humiliating and embarrassing to them even ruin their reputation. Moreover, there is a case of police have unfortunately abused CCTV material or attempt to destroy public policymaterials misconduct. (Gssanni, 2013) This sad news makes people feel that CCTV cameras are scary stuffs. When public do not want their activities to be recorded they can not do anything, however the police could do whatever they want, which is not fair. These problems make us concern about CCTV cameras may be not really good thing in our lives. 
A third main disadvantage of CCTV cameras is the huge cost to install and maintain. According to Reeve in 2011, there are almost 2 million CCTV cameras in the United Kingdom. It means, the cost of having them and keeping them running should also be enormous. As Michael in 2002 study shows that the average cost of keeping these CCTV cameras running is approximately 200,000 pounds every year. In London, over 200 million pounds has been spent on CCTV cameras in the past 10 years. The shocking factor is that this study was just based on the city of London, he total cost of the whole country would be dramatically higher. Obviously, it is a huge number of money and where is it come from? Of course it is paid by the taxpayer. This proves, therefore, that if the government install more CCTV cameras in the country, it means that the citien will need to pay more taxes.
The above opinions, however, are not shared by all. Burn-Murdoch (2012) claims that CCTV has become an important security and crime prevention measure, the crime rate is decline gradually during the last 10 years. Welsh & Farrington(2002) observes that some car parks with the CCTV camera are have less crimes because of people will be more aware when there is CCTV camera nearby. The damage of vehicle and theifts of vehicle were declined by 45% and 89% respectively. In addition, According to the study carried out by Gill(2003) says that in-store CCTV is an useful device to help resist thieves in the shop. The result shows that goods loss rate are reduce sharply before and after using CCTV cameras in shops during the first 3 months. It has a positive impact on the loss of products, which decreased by 23%, 20% and 17% respectively. (Beck&Willis, 2009) Public always only see the existing of CCTV and think it can work very well, rather than its actual result being displayed. This will lead people have blind trust of the CCTV ability of crime control. (Beck&Willis, 2009) On the other hand, public may feel more secure and confident by using CCTV cameras. Therefore, people do not consider about if the CCTV is invading their personal privacy (Spriggs et al, 2005)
In reality, CCTV just lead to more of a displacement of crime instead of reducing it. A senior British police officer Neville(2008) caused a storm by arguing that only one crime case was solved for every thousand operating CCTV cameras a year. The huge number of CCTV cameras in the UK have not led to crime rate decrease, just 3 percent of street robberies were solved with the assistance of CCTV in London .   CCTV cameras are ineffective, when criminals do not consider the rewards and risks factors.(Norris et al, 2004) This view has been confirmed by a murder case: A gem dealer had installed a CCTV camera in his store to protect the property and himself from armed robbery, however, the CCTV filming his own murder in the end. Robbers already know there is CCTV camera in the store, while the crime still happened.(Gssanni, 2013) The gem dealer has over depend on the CCTV camera, eventually leading to death. This case shows that the CCTV camera is just a machine, which often facing different direction and unable to recognize the crime effectively. Also can not protect people lives and stop violent crimes very well.
Criminals have eyes too, they can simply identify which direction the camera is monitoring and they can also easily cover their faces and go ahead with their illegal activities. (Goold, 2002). From the above example, it is clear that CCTV cameras may make some citizen feel safe but the vast majority of crimes in the range of CCTV can not be detected by it. It can just bring a false sense of security, which is negligent and irresponsible to public. (Ryberg, 2008)

Through this detailed analysis, it is logical to conclude that CCTV cameras have both advantages and disadvantages but people should be careful with them, because personal privacy should not be shared with others. CCTV cameras should be banned in some places, such as toilets, fitting rooms and other areas like these. Although CCTV cameras are legal, everyone need to have their own privacy. In addition, these images are considered to be private, but also have many cases of complaints due to the footage of the recorded video has been shared. Therefore, it is important to understand the rationale behind the need to install a CCTV and there should also be provisions for sanctions and punishments for any abuse of CCTV. CCTV cameras have little overall effect on crime levels, but lead to many negative impact on our society, such as invasion of privacy and waste taxpayer’s money.
AFL/CIO(2002). Profiles on Workers Rights. Retrieved from .
Aquilina, K. (2010). Public security versus privacy in technology law: a balancing act. Computer Law & Security Report, 26 (2), 130-143.
Beck, A. and Willis, A. (2009) Context-Specific Measures Of CCTV Effectiveness In The Retail Sector, Scarman Centre, University of Leicester. Available from: http://www.popcenter.org/library/CrimePrevention/Volume_10/10-BeckWillis.pdf
 The impact of CCTV on society  代寫

Burn-Murdoch, J. (2012) Crime statistics for England & Wales: what’s happening to each offence? The Guardian.
Privacy Commissioner (2009) Privacy and CCTV: A guide to the Privacy Act for businesses, agencies and organisations.

Gddanni (2013) Do we need more CCTV cameras?
Gill, M.L.(2003) CCTV. Crime at Work Series, Volume IV. Leicester: Perpetuity Press

Spriggs, A., Argomaniz, J., Gill, M.& Bryan, J. (2005) Public attitudes towards CCTV: results from the Pre-intervention Public Attitude Survey carried out in areas implementing CCTV, Home Office. Available from: http://library.npia.police.uk/docs/hordsolr/rdsolr1005.pdf
  The impact of CCTV on society  代寫
Ryberg, J. (2008). Moral Rights and the Problem of Privacy in Public: A Reply to Lever and Goold. Res Publica, 14(1), 49-56. doi: 10.1007/s11158-008-9048-0.

Goold, B. (2002). Privacy rights and public spaces: CCTV and the problem of the "unobservable observer". Criminal Justice Ethics, 21 (1), 21-27

 The impact of CCTV on society  代寫
Greenhalgh, S. (2003, August). Literature Review on Issues of Privacy and Surveillance Affecting Social Behaviour.
Coleman, C. and Norris, C. (2000) Introducing Criminology. Cullompton, Willan Publishing.

 The impact of CCTV on society  代寫
Norris, C., McCahill, M. and Wood, D. (2004) Editorial. The Growth of CCTV: a global perspective on the international diffusion of video surveillance in publicly accessible space, Surveillance & Society. Available from: http://www.surveillance-and-society.org/articles2(2)/editorial.pdf  P.121, 122, 125

 The impact of CCTV on society  代寫



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