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The role of Medical Radiation in the Diagnosis of Breast Can

The role of Medical Radiation in the Diagnosis of Breast Can

The role of Medical Radiation in the Diagnosis of Breast Cancer
  The role of Medical Radiation in the Diagnosis of Breast Cancer
Introduction
The contemporary medical treatment consists of three key elements prevention, diagnostics and therapy. The development of computer science brings about new renovations in medical device as well as medical diagnosis and medical treatment. Computed Tomography(CT), magnetic resonance(MR), ultrasound and radiation therapy all stem from the range of this technology. CT is a scanning technique which is useful in imaging organ systems in the body. When combined with X-rays and computer engineering, the diagnosis and treatment can be greatly promoted. Currently, it has become a routine that doctors informs the patients of their condition and put forward the treatment suggestions, meanwhile manage the cure procedure and side effects(Zonderland 1999).
As to the application of imaging techniques in the diagnosis of breast cancer, the most common methods in clinical examination are mammographic X-ray, ultrasound, MRI and nuclear medicine examinations. Among all these examination methods, mammographic X-ray has the largest advantage and becomes the first choice for breast cancer imaging, which nowadays is combined with ultrasound. MRI and PET-CT examination are effective in categorizing the clinical stages of breast cancer and are especially used in high-risk patients with lesion detection(Inoue M 2003).
 
Pathology of Breast Cancer
Cause has not been fully elucidated, but many research data shows that the incidence of breast cancer, in addition to the birthplace factor, also has to do with the following factors:
1 endogenous or exogenous estrogen long-term stimulation: The estrogen stimulation plays an important role on breast cancer. Women, who have menstrual cramps premature(less than 12 years old) or late menopause (no later than 55 years), no childbirth (first child after age 35) or not breastfeeding after giving birth, have a higher incidence of breast cancer.
2 viruses: RNA viruses may be associated with breast cancer.
3 mammary dysplasia: Atypical ductal and lobular hyperplasia can increase risk of breast cancer.
4 genetic and family facor: With a history of breast cancer (an immediate family member with breast cancer) among relatives, the risk of breast cancer is 2-3 times higher than the general population.
5 nutritional factors: Excessive intake of fat has certain relevance with breast cancer.
6 radiation: High ionizing radiation, particularly targets in the chest increases risk of breast cancer.
 
General Examinations of Breast Cancer
In case of breast cancer, the patients tend to feel nervous at the diagnosis and desire to make the wisest decision for their treatment which not only can be useful but also present the least side effect. The concern and worry boosts the evolution and improvement of medical radiation. Enough and convincing information, sensible treatment and the timely information plays extraordinary important role in treatment.
According to the United States Preventive Services Task Force recommendations in 2010, the newest breast cancer screening strategies are as following. Firstly women aging from 40 to 49 do not need routine breast X-ray screening. Whether the woman need a regular two-year breast X-ray screening before the age of 50 should be based on the individual circumstances of the patients in order to make specific decisions. In other words, those under 50-year-old are required to take this body test only when there is evidence that indicates it is needed. Secondly women from 50 to 74 need breast X-ray screening every two years. Thirdly there are not sufficient evidence and strategies to assess the benefits and risks of breast X-ray screening of women over 75 years old. Fourthly it is not recommended for clinicians to teach women to carry out self breast examination. Fifty the currently accessible evidence can not prove that women about 40 can gain from self clinical breast exams other than X-ray examination. Sixthly, the available evidence is insufficient to prove that the digitized mammographic X-ray or MRI can replace breast X-ray photographic examination. However, the recommendations of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has not been widely recognized by the radiology community, but the regional statistics indicate mammographic X-ray screening can be recommended for an earlier age, which is higher than the U.S. Preventive Services Task data.
 
Streams of Diagnosis
Mammography
Mammography is the main examination of breast cancer and is now used extensively. This traditional examination has the advantage of perfect contrast degree and a high spatial resolution, making it the first examination choice. The special digital technology of imaging improves the clarity(Sakka 2006) and contrast degree of the photo, with an increase of sensitivity and specificity. Signs of X-ray of breast cancer can be categories into direct signs and indirect signs. Tumor is the most common direct signs. Indirect signs consist of calcification, structure twist. The limitations of mammography concern about the poor penetration in tissue with higher density, ignorance of cancer near the chest, radio injury for young women and insufficient assessment of the size(Khatri 2001).
 The role of Medical Radiation in the Diagnosis of Breast Cancer作業代寫
Ultrasound
Ultrasound is also one of the most common examination methods. It possesses the advantages of nontoxic, harmless and convenient, which is suitable for patients of all ages. The high frequency ultrasound has the unique feature of diagnosing early breast cancer in dense granular. Its diagnosis of identifying solid and cystic lesions can achieve an accuracy of over 90%. The typical presentation in ultrasound is irregular shape, with a burr-like change on the edge. The inner content is not homogeneous. When the center part has liquefaction necrosis, it represents no echoes which are in contrast with low echo section of normal tissue. Ultrasound can also show the metastatic lymph nodes. The restriction lies in its diagnosis of early invasive ductal carcinoma.
 The role of Medical Radiation in the Diagnosis of Breast Cancer作業代寫
Computed Tomography
CT can provide detailed information of local anatomy structure, which can be enhanced by the contrast agent. CT image can reflect special dense invasive are and can evaluate the situation of armpit and sternum. The typical signs in CT is round or oval soft tissue shadow, most of which are substantive with heterogeneous high-density and coarse burr-like change on the edge. The skin on the cancer is accumulated becoming thicker yet the fat layer disappears. In general, the blood supply is rich in the cancer surrounding area and the enhanced CT shows the curve of rapid move in and out. The post techniques can reconstruct a three dimensional shape of the cancer which can assist in obtaining more precious information. The limitation of CT is uniquely situated in the allergic characteristic of contrast agent. Apart from this, CT is more expensive than the previous two methods.
 The role of Medical Radiation in the Diagnosis of Breast Cancer作業代寫
MRI
The accumulated research data indicate MRI has become an essential method in comprehensive diagnosis, which can evidently improve the accuracy of diagnosis of early breast cancer and multi-source breast cancer. MRI has excellent resolution of soft tissue, which is incomparable with other medical examination methods. MRI is highly sensitive in identifying breast cancer, meanwhile brings no radio injury, thus is an appropriate way for general public who have higher risk. The three advantages of MRI are accuracy from the three dimensional image, indication of deep cancer, sensivity in identifying multi center pathological changes and last but not least imaging both sides simultaneously with no injury.
 
Conclusion
Common breast imaging methods include breast X-ray mammography, breast ultrasound, CT and MRI and so on. Among the radiation imaging methods, this passage analyzes how to correctly choose their own imaging. Breast X-ray mammography is good for an early diagnosis of breast, which has become the first choice for the diagnosis of breast imaging. Breast ultrasound can be used in examination of blind spots as well as detect soft tissue resolution. Breast examination without radiation, teenagers or pregnant, lactating women preferred method of examination of breast lesions. CT is generally used as supplement for mammographic X-ray and ultrasound examination. CT has incomparable identification of the cancer inside dense breast lesions and axillary tail and internal mammary lymph nodes. MRI examination has three evident advantages: 1)It has higher sensitivity for dense breast and local recurrence of breast cancer. 2)The fault is three-dimensional imaged, enabling more accurate lesion localization. 3)It is superior when it comes to multi-center, multifocal lesions detected violations of the breast tissue.
 The role of Medical Radiation in the Diagnosis of Breast Cancer作業代寫
Reference
Khatri VP, Stuooino JJ, Espionsa MH, et al.2001, Improved accuracy in differentiating malignant from benign mammographic abnormalities: a simple improved magnetic resonance imaging method. Cancer, pp.471-478
Inoue M, Sana T, Watai R,et al.2003 Dynamic multidetector ct of breast tum79-686ors: diagnostic features and comparison with conventional techniques. AJR Am J Roentgenol, pp.6
Orel SG. Schnall MD.2001, MR imaging of the breast for the detection diagnosis and staging of breast cancer. Radiology.pp.13-30
Sakka E, Prentza A, Koutsouris D. 2006, Classification algorithms for microcalcifications in mammograms. Oncol Rep, pp.1049-1056
Zonderland HM, Coerkamp EG, Hermans J, et al.1999, Diagnosis of breast cancer: Contribution of US as an adjunct to mammography. Radiolagy, pp.413-422
 
 

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